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第二次世界大战期间,为什么印度人没有暴动反对英国人

Why didn't Indians riot against the British during World War II?

第二次世界大战期间,为什么印度人没有暴动反对英国人?

以下是Quora读者的评论:

David Fred, Spent time "studying" war. Dad served in USMC 4th Marine Div

I watched a documentary (one of many) on WW2, and they interviewed a retired General from the Indian Army, serving I think with Bill Slim in the BIC theater.

我看了一部关于二战的纪录片(这样的纪录片有很多),他们采访了一位退役的印度将军,可能和比尔·斯利姆一起服役过。

He said in essence, “For us, it was a question of which oppressor was worse at the time, and it was clear the Japanese were more oppressive than the British, so the question of Indian independence would have to wait until the greater oppressor, the Japanese, were defeated.”

他说,其实“对我们来说,这是谁更坏的问题,很明显,日本人比英国人更叫人难以忍受,所以印度独立的的不得不延后到日本人被击败之后。”

 

Craig Arthur, I was actually born in the past/ prolific consumer of all things historical

A variety of reasons, and a note that a small number of Indians did do this. The primary reason was that they knew that it was only a matter of time before the British left anyway.

原因各异,但有一小部分印度人确实这么做了。最主要的原因是他们知道英国人的败退只是时间问题。

The history of British rule in India is a history of gradual movement towards more and more self-rule for India. Even from the start of British rule in India many recognised that this was not something that would last forever.

英国在印度的统治历史正是印度逐渐走向自治的历史。甚至从英国开始统治印度之日起,许多人就认识到,这种情况不可能永远持续下去。

By the 1930s it was accepted by the political elites of the UK that Indian independence was an inevitability within their lifetimes.

到了20世纪30年代,英国的政治精英们普遍认为,印度的独立在他们有生之年内是无法避免的。

Gandhi's peaceful disobedience was having its desired effect. It was damaging British business in India (the entire reason Britain had set up a government in India) and, even more importantly, being widely reported in the west; Convincing British voters that British rule in India was wrong.

甘地的和平反抗产生了预期的效果。这损害了英国在印度的商业(这就是英国在印度建立政府的全部原因),更重要的是,它被西方广泛地报道;让英国选民相信英国在印度的统治是错误的。

One major step which really underlined that independence was inevitable was the 1935 Government of India Act, which called for responsible government on a provincial level in India. Essentially home-rule for the Indian provinces, albeit not yet for the federal government.

真正让独立势不可挡的事件是1935年的《印度政府法案》,该法案要求印度邦级政府担起责任。印度各邦自治,当时尚未成立联邦政府。

There were some in the Indian Independence movement who wanted to rebel, there was some civil disobedience, however overall India stuck with Gandhi, who said that he did not want an independent India to be born out of Britain’s ashes.

印度独立运动中有一些人想造反,也有一些公民不服,但总的来说印度支持甘地,甘地说他不希望一个独立的印度从英国的废墟中诞生。

Perhaps it was just weighing up the relative power of each side and deciding an allied victory was more likely.

也许他只是在衡量双方的相对实力,最后判断盟军更有可能取得胜利。

Certainly with the benefit of hindsight I have to come to the conclusion that India made the smart choice.

当然,事后看来,我不得不得出这样的结论:印度做出了明智的选择。

Regardless, India stuck with the allies, with the Indian army in WW2 being the largest volunteer army in history.

无论如何,印度与盟国站在了一起,印度军队在二战中是历史上规模最大的志愿军。

 

Susanna Viljanen, works at Aalto University

They did. There was the pro-Japanese Indian National Army, and some Indians volunteered on the Nazi side. They got quickly disillusioned on their new masters.

他们反对了。当时有亲日的印度国民军,一些印度人自愿站在纳粹一边。他们对新主人很快就不抱幻想了。

But on the other hand, if you suffer from cholera, why would you trade it for plague?

但另一方面,如果你患有霍乱,为什么要用它来换鼠疫呢?

The Indians were not stupid. They would realize they had better chances of independence after the war - on victorious but seriously weakened British rather than if the Japanese had been victorious.

印度人并不愚蠢。他们会意识到,战后他们有更好的独立机会——在英国取得胜利但实力被严重削弱的情况下,而非若日本取得胜利。

More than 2.5 million Indians served as volunteer for the British army. The Allied victory did indeed leave the British seriously weakened, and many British themselves considered granting India the independence was a fitting reward for the sacrifices of the loyal Indians on defeating the two greatest evils of the 20th century - the Nazi Germany and the Imperialist Japan.

250多万印度人成为英国军队的志愿军。盟军的胜利确实严重削弱了英国的实力,许多英国人认为给予印度独立是对忠心耿耿的印度人为打败20世纪两大恶魔—纳粹德国和帝国主义日本所做的牺牲的一种恰当的奖励。

 

Edward Whitehead, Fascinated by everything in history (except maybe the early Church Fathers).

Eh? Why didn't Indians riot against the British during World War II? They did!

是吗?第二次世界大战期间,为什么印度人没有反对英国人?他们反对了呀!

So far I have seen some rather strange answers - more reasons why ought not to have rioted. You would not think from them that Ghandi continued the independence struggle regardless of the war with Japan, to which he seems to have been quite indifferent (not to say as per his usual, evasive. Too bad that some of you will consider this blasphemy). In the person of Cripps (of whom I have written elsewhere on Quora) the Congress leadership was offered independence after the war, to which Congress demanded immediate self-government and Ghandi refused to accept, in a very famous phrase ‘post-dated cheques upon a bankrupt Empire’. He proclaimed passive disobedience against the British authorities and at least some of the Congress leadership were in fact imprisoned for the duration of the war.

到目前为止,我看到了一些相当奇葩的答案——更多不应该发生骚乱的原因。从他们的回答里,你不会认为甘地不顾与日本的战争而继续独立斗争,他对这场战争似乎相当漠不关心(更不用说像往常一样闪烁其辞了)。克里普斯(我在Quora的其他地方写过他的文章)在战后被授予国会领导权,国会要求立即自治,甘地拒绝接受,还说了一句非常著名的短语“破产帝国的过期支票”。他宣布对英国当局采取消极违抗的态度,事实上,有一些国会领导人在战争期间被监禁了。

 

Laurent Franckx, Former Army officer, avid reader on the subject of WW2 since I was 12

Actually, they did. There were important riots in the summer of 1942, and the British locked up the leaders of the Congress Party. Other leaders of Congress went underground. The rapid advance of the Japanese array in the spring of 1942 had severely damaged the prestige of the British. Even though the situation eventually stabilised, the damage done was irreparable. The Bengal famine in 1943, which was partly due to a scorched earth policy implemented by the Raj and to British indifference to the first signals of an impending disaster, did nothing to improve this.

事实上,他们反对的。1942年夏天发生了重大骚乱,英国人把国大党的领导人关了起来。其他国大党领导人转入地下。1942年春天日本军队的快速推进严重损害了英国的声誉。尽管局势最终稳定下来,但造成的损失是无法弥补的。1943年的孟加拉饥荒,部分原因是由于英国政府实施的焦土政策,以及英国人对即将到来的灾难的最初信号漠不关心。

This being said, this was before Twitter. Most people in remote villages had barely any idea of what was going on, and the British were also able to recruit a volunteer army of close to 2 million men by the end of the war. A lot of local rulers were happy to collaborate actively with the British war effort, and to encourage their subjects to enrol in the army.

也就是说,这是在Twitter出现之前。大多数住在偏远村庄的人几乎不知道发生了什么,而英国人也能够在战争结束时招募到一支近200万人的志愿军。许多地方统治者乐于与英国积极合作,鼓励他们的臣民参军。

So it was not a black-and-white thing. Although Indians definitely wished the British to leave, those who knew what was going on, did not want the British to lose the war either - there was a mix of ambivalent feelings of loyalty, deep-seated fear of the Japanese and opportunism.

所以这不是非黑即白的事。尽管印度人确实希望英国人离开,但那些清楚局势的人也不希望英国人输掉这场战争——他们有一种矛盾的忠诚感、对日本人根深蒂固的恐惧和机会主义。

Source: The Raj at War: A People’s History of India’s Second World War by Yasmin Khan

资料来源:Yasmin Khan的《战争中的统治:印度人民的第二次世界大战历史》

 

Joseph Allen, PhD Military History and Wars & Government (2015)

The British Empire at this point was so thinly stretched out that the threat from Japan was seen by many of the Leaders of India’s seperationist parties to unite for the war effort. Independence was not offered as a done deal, however the Crown did say that at a minimum Commonwealth status would be granted. The Indian Ocean was from 1939 an important part of the war, starting in November and the Battlecruiser Graf Spee sinking a light tanker. The forces raised in India fought both the Japanese and German/Italian fronts with honor and valour. Following the war after hard talks due to religious beliefs and land claims, the independent countries of India and Pakistan were created.

译文来源:无极4  http://www.abaripsen.com/48273.html 译者:Joyceliu

这个时期大英帝国的势力较弱,以至于印度分离主义政党的许多领导人都看到了来自日本的威胁,他们要团结起来为战争而努力。独立并不是一个既定的协议,但是英王说至少会给予印度英联邦国家地位。自1939年以来,印度洋一直是战争的重要组成部分,从去年11月开始,“格拉夫-斯佩”号巡洋舰击沉了一艘轻型油轮。在印度集结的军队光荣而勇敢地与日本和德国/意大利进行了前线作战。战争结束后,由于宗教信仰和土地主张的原因,双方进行了艰苦的谈判,建立了印度和巴基斯坦两个独立国家。

 

Suttichart Denpreuktham, Writer at Defense Politic Asia

Some did

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As much as Gandi and his party would love to use none-violence uprising to gain independence, there was someone like this guy who wouldn’t mind bloodshed and a little cooperation with the other side of the world order for an independent India.

尽管甘地和他的政党愿意利用非暴力起义来获得独立,但像他这样的人并不介意流血,也不介意为了一个独立的印度而与世界秩序的对立面进行合作。

Subhas Chandra Bose is the name of this guy. He asked Hitler to help organise violent revolution in India - of which was promptly refused. He was then went to the Japanese, asking for an assistance to organise an army made up of Indian PoWs to invade his own motherland (even if that meant sheding blood of his own people).

Subhas Chandra Bose就是这个人的名字。他请求希特勒帮助组织印度的革命,但很快遭到拒绝。然后,他去找日本人,请求帮助组织一支由印度战俘组成的军队入侵他自己的祖国

The Japanese decided to help him raising his Indian National Army - he was thoroughly defeated in his attempt to invade British India alongside the Japanese forces.

日本人决定帮助他建立他的印度国民军——他在与日本军队一起入侵英属印度的企图中彻底失败了。

 

Arpan Bhattacharya

A lot of credit goes to the leadership of that time. By that I mean not only Gandhi .The entire group. This question is very important as this explains why Gandhi’s ideology was so powerfull. There was violence againSt British. There were groups who wanted to kill them Brits. But what Gandhi was able to do with his non violent movement was he secured the future of the unborn generation. Imagine if Indians had gone on a rampage to kill Brits. We shall be at war even today. The indian freedom movement was not about just Independence but also securing the freedom of future generations from the cycle of violence. Gandhi knew from history that violence only begins a cycle of revenge. Look at europe now. So much war has been fought but they cannot get their Union together.. Look at the condition of India ans Pakistan. Look how the mordern generation hates each other. So Gandhi and Co. not only liberated the Indians but also liberated unborn Indians and Brits from getting a war of hatred and revenge imposed on them.

这要归功于当时的领导人。我指的不只是甘地,而是整个群体。这个问题非常重要,因为这解释了甘地的意识形态为何如此强大。甘地通过非暴力运动所能做的是,他确保了未出生一代的未来。想象一下,如果印度人疯狂地杀害英国人。那么到了今日,我们也仍将处于战争之中。印度的自由运动不仅是为了独立,而且是为了确保后代的自由不再受不休暴力的影响。甘地从历史中明白了一个道理,暴力只会引发报复的循环。看看现在的欧洲。经历了那么多场战争,他们还是无法团结起来。看看印度和巴基斯坦的情况。看看现代的一代人是如何互相憎恨的。所以甘地和他的团队不仅解放了印度人,也解放了未出生的印度人和英国人,使他们摆脱了强加于他们的仇恨和报复战争。

 

Deval Saxena

During the initial years of Second World War, the Congress though reluctantly agreed to support the British on the condition that soon after the war was over, some concrete action on formation of constituent assembly and freedom would be granted to India at the earliest. There was no consensus in the Congress on the course of action to be followed during the World War II years. Mahatma Gandhi was not in favor of taking advantage of the situation of the British, instead he thought that their cause was just, Nehru and Bose wanted to take advantage of the war as they thought British participation in war as an act of pure imperialism defending colonies and extending its empire, and if Britishers were serious about their war aims i.e. to protect their sovereignty they should prove it by granting India independence. Ultimately Nehru thought neither to support the British nor to act against them during this time. The communist parties also didn’t backed Bose’s plan. So this lack of action plan and no consensus amongst the leaders didn’t led to conditions which would have favored a riot against the British during second world war.

在第二次世界大战的最初几年,国大党虽然不愿意同意支持英国,但有一个条件,在战争结束后不久,印度将在立宪会议和自由问题上采取具体行动。国会没有就第二次世界大战期间应采取的行动方针达成协商一致意见。圣雄甘地并不赞成利用英国的局势,相反,他认为尼赫鲁和玻色想利用战争,他们认为英国参与战争是纯帝国主义行为,为了保卫殖民地和扩展大英帝国,如果英国人严肃对待他们的战争目标,如保护他们的主权,应该通过给予印度独立来证明。最终,尼赫鲁对英国既不支持,也不反对。因此,缺乏行动计划,领导人之间也没有达成共识,所以没有导致二战期间发生反对英国的暴乱。

 

Robert Clouse, Disable Veteran at Cincinnati, OH (2000-present)

The Indian Republic congress started the Quit India movement in August of 1942. It was was refusing to co-operate in any way with the government until independence was granted. The government was ready for this move. It immediately arrested over 60,000 national and local Congress leaders, and then moved to suppress the violent reaction of Congress supporters. Key leaders were kept in prison until June 1945, although Gandhi was released in May 1944 because of his health.

1942年8月,印度共和国议会发起了“退出印度”运动。它拒绝以任何方式与政府合作,直到获得独立。政府为了这个行动做好了准备,逮捕了6万多名全国和地方国会领导人。主要领导人一直被关押到1945年6月,但甘地因健康原因于1944年5月获释。

Meanwhile, under the leadership of Indian leader Subhas Chandra Bose, Japan set up an army of Indian POWs known as the Indian National Army, which fought against the British.

与此同时,在印度领导人钱德拉·博斯的领导下,日本成立了一支由印度战俘组成的军队,名为印度国民军,与英国作战。

In 1939 the British Indian Army numbered 205,000 men. It took in volunteers and by 1945 was the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men.

1939年,英属印度军队有20.5万人,吸纳志愿者,到1945年成为历史上规模最大的志愿部队,人数超过250万。

After the end of the war, India's emerged as the world's fourth largest industrial power and its increased political, economic and military influence paved the way for its independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.

二战结束后,印度崛起为世界第四大工业强国,其日益增长的政治、经济和军事影响力为1947年脱离英国取得独立铺平了道路。

The big support by most of India during WW2 was a big reason why India is so powerful now and a independent nation.

二战期间大部分印度人的大力支持是印度如今强大和独立的一个重要原因。

 

Etienne Patton, worked at Central College

My father served in the RAF in WW2 and was stationed in India from 1943. He was not inclined to talk about it too much.

二战期间我父亲在英国皇家空军服役,1943年起驻扎在印度。他不愿意过多地谈论这件事。

I can remember that he said that on several occasions the truck transporting him and other troops would be bricked. This would be accompanied by shouts of “QUIT INDIA”.

我记得他说过,有几次运送他和其他部队的卡车会被堵,并伴随着“退出印度”的呼声。

 

Paul Reid, worked at Witchcraft

Why would they? You do realise that they were offered independence if they took part in the war? That there were around 2.5 million volunteers from India? Or has Indian history glossed over that in it's hatred of all things Imperial? The not so latent assertions here are that the British were all considered evil, and that all Indians hated them. Neither assertion is remotely true.

他们为什么要这样做呢?你知道吗,如果他们参加战争,就会获得独立。印度有250万志愿军?也许印度历史掩盖了这一点,因为印度憎恨所有帝国主义的东西?人们认为英国人都被是邪恶的,所有的印度人都恨他们。这两种说法都不正确。

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